Validation of QueChERS Method and monitoring pesticide residues in the metropolitan’s agricultural soil region of Chile
Elgueta S, Fuentes M, Galvez X, Correa A, Hernández JE
Abstract: The OECD, in 2005, has reported that in average pesticides are used at a total of 0.21 kg ha-1 (CEPAL/OCDE 2005) and also that Chile has one of the highest levels of pesticide usage (10.7 kg ha-1 in 2009) and, nowadays, the lack in terms of knowing where pesticide residues fate (spcially in soil and water) still remains in Chile. Therefore, the purposes of this study was to validate QuEChERS method in soil samples for a representative population of pesticides, thus to quantify the concentration of pesticide’s residue over the Metropolitan’s agricultural soil region in Chile, for this purpose the lettuce was selected as a fresh vegetable product. To the analytical methodology, soil samples were collected from a variety of places, in special where no pesticides were applied (Lampa’s Metropolitan region located at S° 33”, 17: W° 70”, 5). The monitoring process was conducted during three lettuce’s rotation in the season 2016. 12 samples, from each rotation, were collected to monitor the pesticide residue level. The method was validated according to the SANCO document 12571/2013 guidelines for boscalid, imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin, linuron, methomyl. The limit of quantification (LOQ), which was defined as an acceptable recovery (70-105%), started at 0.01 mg kg-1. The precision, which was expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD, %) at three levels (n = 5/level), was set at <20%. The average recovery of the different pesticide varied between 70% and 105%. The pesticides residues were determined using the QuEChERS method using gas chromatography (GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and GC-MS) as well as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The obtained recovery pesticide residues values varied from 75% to 105%, which is aligned with the European Commission Regulation desired recovery percentages. In addition, the RSD was 0.5-15%, which is lower than the 15% required, therefore the extraction and clean-up was also validated. Amongst the detected pesticides, methomyl showed the highest concentration (0.98 mg kg-1), followed by boscalid (0.15 mg kg-1), and imidacloprid (0.05 mg kg-1). Imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, linuron and methomyl were the most predominant compounds found in all the samples. In fact, these levels of linuron and imidacloprid certainly might induce adverse effects on in the environment. Hence, the novelty of this research is, through this real based data analysis on pesticides, is oriented to enhance the understanding on how important pesticides residues in soil are, therefore, this will lead to improve the methods on pesticide usage and also to promote integrated pest management programs in Chile.
Cited as: Elgueta et al. (2017). Validation of QueChERS Method and monitoring pesticide residues in the metropolitan’s agricultural soil region of Chile. SETAC Europe 27th Annual Meeting. Brussels, Belgium, May 6-10, 2017.
Assessment of the acute and chronic health risk in leafy vegetable in Chile
Elgueta S, Fuentes M, Galvez X, Correa A, Hernández JE
Abstract: To guarantee the right supply of food, the use of pesticide has become a well-known practice once managing the crops. However, the inefficient use of them, especially in the horticultural based fresh products, has implied an increment on agri-farming pollution related as well as a reduction on optimal environmental levels, which implies an increment on human health risks. Hence, and more than ever, establishing the right key performance indicators (KPI’s) to monitor chemical levels in fresh products, as well as to assess their risks to human health, it is crucial and justified to realise the main effects and reasons from these risks. There are several KPI’s for measuring and estimate the amount of chemicals in food, being the acceptable daily intake (ADI) one of the most well-known KPI which is expressed as mg kg-1 body weight (bw) day -1. ADI is used then to predict the daily intake during a lifetime and contributes to determine the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) to reduce risks on health. Nevertheless, a lack of information regarding the assessment of the acute and chronic health risk still exists. Moreover, and in the special case of Chile, healthy risks related to leafy vegetable based fresh foods is still one of the major challenges and issues that requires to be studied. In this context, most of research works has conducted a study over 118 leafy vegetables in order to determine the level of pesticide present in this population. For this purpose, the samples were collected from 2014 to 2015, and are coming from a representative geographical area of Chile (the North Central). Thus, to measure the level of pesticides, the multiresidue QuEChERS method, using gas chromatography (GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and GC-MS) as well as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was considered. The outcomes highlights that 27% of the samples contains pesticide residues over the maximum limits from each active ingredient. In addition to this, the maximum EDI obtained for carbon disulphide (CS2), methamidophos, azoxystrobin, and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.05 mg kg-1, respectively. These figures are out of range considering their ADI’s. Therefore, this study concludes that inhabitants of agricultural areas of Chile are not exposed to health risks, specially through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.
Cited as: Elgueta et al. (2017). Assessment of the acute and chronic health risk in leafy vegetable in Chile. SETAC Europe 27th Annual Meeting. Brussels, Belgium, May 6-10, 2017.
RUC-APS: Enhancing and implementing Knowledge based ICT solutions within high Risk and Uncertain Conditions for Agriculture Production Systems
Hernandez JE, Mortimer M, Patelli E, Liu S, Drummond C, Kehr E, Calabrese N, Iannaccone R, Kacprzyk J, Alemany M, Gardner D, Fernandez A, Panetto H, Zarate P, Martinez D, Simonetti A, Guyon C, Sauvage C
Abstract: Current global requirements are stressing agricultural systems to achieve enough resilience capabilities once abrupt changes in resource quality, quantity and availability occurs, especially during uncertain weather, pests and diseases, volatile market conditions and commodity prices conditions. Thus, managing risks and the uncertainties in information will lead farmers and value chain stakeholders to better react to these unexpected conditions. Hence, from the genetic design of the seed, through the planting and harvest processes, RUC-APS will enhance the knowledge from the full agricultural life-cycle based-decision making process to realise the key impacts at every stage farming decisions once facing high risk and uncertainty. Thus, RUC-APS will provide an integrated standard and customised solutions to enhance collaborative agriculture value chains structures.
Cite as: Hernandez et al. (2017). RUC-APS: Enhancing and implementing Knowledge based ICT solutions within high Risk and Uncertain Conditions for Agriculture Production Systems. 11th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management. Valencia, Spain, July 5-6, 2017